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Thursday, December 21

  1. page Williams' Syndrome (Kaleb Thomas) edited ... People that present with Williams' Syndrome are most commonly recognized for their abnormally …
    ...
    People that present with Williams' Syndrome are most commonly recognized for their abnormally outgoing personalities. Known as having the charisma of a talk-show host, WS people are highly perceptive of nonverbal social cues. As developing children, WS people show neurotypical social navigation through turn-taking and social cueing. In social settings, WS infants and children respond to others with the expected matching or complementary verbal and physical responses. This is contrary to autistic individuals who lack social intuition due to a proposed absence of mirror neurons according to the Ramachandran Mirror Neuron Hypothesis. Populations of WS children have been clinically tested for social tendencies, and the results show more of an inclination to mimicry and imitation in WS people as opposed to neurotypical children. Such sensitivity to the emotions of others plays a key role in the social profile of someone with WS, but their lack of development in other cognitive areas (such as "decision making based on affective displays" or "perspective taking" [Fidler 12-13]) takes the social keenness to an astronomical level. Thus, WS children are more likely to engage socially based on a tendency to imitate and the lack of a tendency to shy away from social interaction. Amygdala activity coming through from the ventral visual stream showed increased activity in WS people when faced with various non-social scenes. However, when presented with threatening faces, amygdala response showed a decrease. Thus, Williams people show high non-social anxiety while experiencing non-social scenes, but are more than fond of anything resembling human interaction.
    Presentation of Musical Affinity in WS:
    ...
    in WS.
    Functional Anatomical Review:
    Williams' syndrome is said to cause a disruption of visual processing in the dorsal, or "where" stream, of the visual pathway. The dorsal visual stream receives its input primarily from m-type ganglion cells in the ganglion cell layer of the retina. These cells form the optic nerve that flows out of the retina and decussates at the optic chiasm. Since the chiasm joins together retinal pathways from both eyes, it is known as the optic tract. Input from the nasal portions of the visual fields of both eyes will remain ipsilateral post-chiasm and input from the temporal portions of the visual field will decussate. This is demonstrated in the following diagram.
    ...
    A specific case of a WS person investigates the cortical operations of patient KT. KT showed physical deformations from birth but was raised typically in a household with two siblings. Various medical complications arose throughout KT's infancy and he showed the typical lack of social inhibition associated with WS. Motor development showed a slight retard in KT, as walking began after twenty months. Movement was not severely impacted, though some dystonic movement and posture were clear in KT's neck/shoulder regions. MRI displayed a phenomenon consistent with Autism: enlarged lateral ventricles. Additionally, KT's MRI showed agenesis of the Corpus Callosum, though communication between the left and right hemispheres was intact. KT was put through various motor and visuospatial tests and showed has was shown, trouble arose for the patient when asked to recreate them. KT could identify items but "without canonical views" (Nakamura 1816). In lay terms, KT could identify parts of a whole, but could not cognitively process them together as a whole; the local visual perception was intact, but the global visual perception was impaired. Motion perception and direction perception were left intact, however, as was indicated by normal performance on a task involving the eye-tracking of randomly moving dots on a screen.
    To assess the visuospatial cognitive abilities of the subject, three tests were administered. In the first figure-copying task, KT was asked to recreate a series of geometric shapes comprised of small x's. Though KT was well aware that the 'x' was the building block of the geometric shapes, KT could not actually recreate the global shape. In a second task known as free-drawing, KT was asked to draw objects based on verbal descriptions. For example, KT was directed to draw a flower in a flower pot. Interestingly enough, KT had no problem drawing each item individually, but drew the flower next to the pot. Moreover, the pot was drawn from an inferior point of view; an odd perspective from which to draw such a mundane item. In another verbal drawing task, the subject was asked to draw a house with windows and a door. What resulted was a drawing of a house with windows and a separate illustration of a door below. A third task revealed that KT showed poor performance when asked to copy a drawing of a line through a graph of dots.
    ...
    visual aid:
    {williams house.jpg}
    Looking further into motion perception (or lack thereof), the test proposed to check the intactness of the magnocellular pathway is "to assess the direction discrimination of coherently moving dots in dynamic random noise" (Nakamura et al. 1813). When asked to indicate the direction of movement of the dots on the screen, KT's performance was within the mean range for children of a comparable age. He performed just as well for various other motion perception tasks. However, the accurate perception of motion was not a fail-safe indication of an intact MT (V5) in the dorsal pathway. Anatomically speaking, the V4 can be a compensatory brain area when V5/MT is non-functional. Thus, it is possible, though unlikely, that plasticity allowed KT's visual cortex to redesign itself as to retain motion perception without a typically functioning MT as MEG imaging returned neurotypical results. This ultimately brings us to the conclusion that some of KT's dorsal stream was left intact, allowing for proper motion detection, while other areas showed deficits resulting in poor spatial analysis of objects. The phrase 'selective dysfunction' is used to describe the lack of congruity in dorsal stream deficits.
    ...
    e. none of the above
    10. Williams syndrome can cause specific anxieties. Which of the following is most likely to result in a fear response in WS?
    ...
    moving dots.
    b.

    b.
    Decreased activation
    ...
    food tasting.
    c.

    c.
    Increased activation
    ...
    unfamiliar scenes.
    d.

    d.
    Decreased activation
    ...
    intimidating faces.
    e.

    e.
    Decreased activation
    ...
    unfamilar scenes.
    Listing of relevant links or suggesting readings (include a brief description of content)
    Quiz questions & answers (5-10 Multiple Choice / T-F & 3-5 Short Answer / Essay)
    References

    Sources:

    https://www.thinglink.com/scene/487669296059645952 (photo)
    https://bioluliaes.wordpress.com/3-eso/3-coordination-function/3-2-sensory-receptors/3-2-1-vision/3-2-1-3-visual-pathways/ (photo)
    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncom.2014.00084/full
    http://www.forgottendiseases.org/assets/WilliamsSyn.html
    Fidler, D. J., Hepburn, S. L., Most, D. E., Philofsky, A., & Rogers, S. J. (2007). Emotional Responsivity in Young Children With Williams Syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 112(3), 194. doi:10.1352/0895-8017(2007)112[194:eriycw]2.0.co;2
    Fisher, M. H., Lense, M. D., & Dykens, E. M. (2016). Longitudinal trajectories of intellectual and adaptive functioning in adolescents and adults with Williams syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 60(10), 920-932. doi:10.1111/jir.12303
    Hopyan, T., Dennis, M., Weksberg, R., & Cytrynbaum, C. (2001). Music Skills and the Expressive Interpretation of Music in Children with Williams-Beuren Syndrome: Pitch, Rhythm, Melodic Imagery, Phrasing, and Musical Affect. Child Neuropsychology (Neuropsychology, Development and Cognition: Section C), 7(1), 42-53. doi:10.1076/chin.7.1.42.3147
    Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Hariri, A. R., Munoz, K. E., Mervis, C. B., Mattay, V. S., Morris, C. A., & Berman, K. F. (2005). Neural correlates of genetically abnormal social cognition in Williams syndrome. Nature Neuroscience, 8(8), 991-993. doi:10.1038/nn1494
    Nakamura, M., Kaneoke, Y., Watanabe, K., & Kakigi, R. (2002). Visual information process in Williams syndrome: intact motion detection accompanied by typical visuospatial dysfunctions. European Journal of Neuroscience, 16(9), 1810-1818. doi:10.1046/j.1460-9568.2002.02227.x
    Rondan, C., Santos, A., Mancini, J., Livet, M. O., & Deruelle, C. (2008). Global and Local processing in Williams Syndrome: Drawing versus Perceiving. Child Neuropsychology, 14(3), 237-248. doi:10.1080/09297040701346321
    Strømme, P., Bjømstad, P. G., & Ramstad, K. (2002). Prevalence Estimation of Williams Syndrome. Journal of Child Neurology, 17(4), 269-271. doi:10.1177/088307380201700406

    (view changes)
    11:36 am

Wednesday, December 13

  1. page Williams' Syndrome (Kaleb Thomas) edited ... Introduction and Symptomology: Williams Syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects neurologi…
    ...
    Introduction and Symptomology:
    Williams Syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects neurological and physical development. The condition is caused by the deletion of around 21 individual genes along the chromosome 7q11.23. It is characterized primarily by heightened empathy and social skills, hypersensitivity to auditory stimuli, and in some scenarios, intellectual disability. It is suggested that there are approximately 3 times more people with WS than are currently observed or studied in psychological and neurological literature.
    ...
    (Hopyan 42).
    A common complication with Williams Syndrome is congenital heart disease (occurred in 79% of one studied population). Those with Williams Syndrome have been historically regarded as mentally handicapped with a retard in learning being an issue. Today, however, they are commonly able to live functional and enriched lives and are more understood to be generally cognitively functional. WS people commonly present as extremely social due to the inhibition of social fear and anxiety mechanisms in the brain. Within the brain of a person with WS, the amygdala and linked prefrontal regions are most affected by the chromosomal fluke. The most relevant complication to the focus of this course occurs in visual processing pathways, specifically in the Dorsal Stream. The dorsal visual stream is associated with the perception of motion and 3D objects sees deficits that inhibit WS people from perceiving global visual stimuli in a neurotypical way.
    Presentation of Social Affinity in WS:
    ...
    human interaction.
    Presentation of Musical Affinity in WS:
    People with WS are commonly known to be rather skilled in musical improvisation and performance. They are sensitive to happy sounding tunes and are capable of "melodic consistency and musical expressiveness" (Talar Hopyan et al. 50). In contrast to the visual cognitive deficits, WS musicians are more likely to perform well with global musical interpretation as opposed to local pitch and rhythm discrimination. In fact, WS people perform below average to average on rhythm and pitch discrimination tasks compared to their cognitively matched peers. This may be due to the different sorts of activation that occur within prefrontal areas of the brain, as certain areas such as the polar MPFC are activated differently in neurotypicals during musical improvisation and are activated differently overall in WS.
    Functional Anatomical Review:
    Williams' syndrome is said to cause a disruption of visual processing in the dorsal, or "where" stream, of the visual pathway. The dorsal visual stream receives its input primarily from m-type ganglion cells in the ganglion cell layer of the retina. These cells form the optic nerve that flows out of the retina and decussates at the optic chiasm. Since the chiasm joins together retinal pathways from both eyes, it is known as the optic tract. Input from the nasal portions of the visual fields of both eyes will remain ipsilateral post-chiasm and input from the temporal portions of the visual field will decussate. This is demonstrated in the following diagram.
    ...
    Presentation of the topic or issue in detail • Summary or concluding paragraph
    A specific case of a WS person investigates the cortical operations of patient KT. KT showed physical deformations from birth but was raised typically in a household with two siblings. Various medical complications arose throughout KT's infancy and he showed the typical lack of social inhibition associated with WS. Motor development showed a slight retard in KT, as walking began after twenty months. Movement was not severely impacted, though some dystonic movement and posture were clear in KT's neck/shoulder regions. MRI displayed a phenomenon consistent with Autism: enlarged lateral ventricles. Additionally, KT's MRI showed agenesis of the Corpus Callosum, though communication between the left and right hemispheres was intact. KT was put through various motor and visuospatial tests and showed has was shown, trouble arose for the patient when asked to recreate them. KT could identify items but "without canonical views" (Nakamura 1816). In lay terms, KT could identify parts of a whole, but could not cognitively process them together as a whole; the local visual perception was intact, but the global visual perception was impaired. Motion perception and direction perception were left intact, however, as was indicated by normal performance on a task involving the eye-tracking of randomly moving dots on a screen.
    ...
    of dots.
    An example of how a WS subject would illustrate these requested tasks is found in the following visual aid:

    {williams house.jpg}
    ...
    stream deficits.
    Findings

    Findings
    from other
    ...
    theory stands.
    Glossary:
    MT: Also referred to as V5, this landmark in the visual pathway is generally responsible for the processing of local/global movement, speed, and frequency.
    ...
    Corpus Callosum: Region of the brain facilitating communication between left and right hemispheres.
    Questions:
    ...
    the following:
    a. The magnocellular pathway
    b. The parvocellular pathway
    ...
    e. None of the aboce
    2. The ventral portion of the MST is responsible for perception of self-propelled movement. T or F.
    ...
    or F.
    4.

    4.
    WS people
    ...
    or F.
    5.

    5.
    Williams Syndrome
    ...
    or F.
    6. The dorsal visual stream is involved in:
    a. localization of visual stimuli
    ...
    d. Coordination of action with objects
    e. All of the Above
    ...
    or F.
    8.
    9.
    10.

    8. Which of the following tasks would someone with WS perform poorly on?
    a. Subject is asked to draw two triangles next to each other
    b. Subject is asked to trace a single straight black line across a blank white sheet of paper
    c. Subject is asked to illustrate a Christmas tree with a star and ornaments
    d. Subject is asked to indicate directional movement of a school of fish swimming in water
    e. C and D
    9. The corpus callosum is:
    a. disconnected in WS brains
    b. enlarged in WS brains
    c. no diffferent in WS brains than in neurotypical brains
    d. underdeveloped in WS brains
    e. none of the above
    10. Williams syndrome can cause specific anxieties. Which of the following is most likely to result in a fear response in WS?
    a. Increased activation to the dorsal MT in response to rapidly moving dots.
    b. Decreased activation of the hippocampus in response to food tasting.
    c. Increased activation of the amygdala in the presence of unfamiliar scenes.
    d. Decreased activation of the amygdala in the presence of intimidating faces.
    e. Decreased activation of the amygdala in the presence of unfamilar scenes.

    Listing of relevant links or suggesting readings (include a brief description of content)
    Quiz questions & answers (5-10 Multiple Choice / T-F & 3-5 Short Answer / Essay)
    References
    https://www.thinglink.com/scene/487669296059645952 (photo)
    https://bioluliaes.wordpress.com/3-eso/3-coordination-function/3-2-sensory-receptors/3-2-1-vision/3-2-1-3-visual-pathways/ (photo)
    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncom.2014.00084/full
    http://www.forgottendiseases.org/assets/WilliamsSyn.html
    (view changes)
    6:57 am
  2. page Williams' Syndrome (Kaleb Thomas) edited Williams Syndrome Williams {williams photo demonstration.jpeg} Introduction and Symptomology:…
    Williams Syndrome
    Williams{williams photo demonstration.jpeg}
    Introduction and Symptomology:
    Williams
    Syndrome is
    ...
    neurological literature. Typical complications
    Those
    with Williams includeSyndrome are said to have Elven facial features. These include"upturned nose, depressed facial bridge, broad mouth, and full lips" (Hopyan 42).
    A common complication with Williams Syndrome is
    congenital heart disease (in(occurred in 79% of one population), Though thosestudied population). Those with Williams
    ...
    being an issue,issue. Today, however, they are
    ...
    and enriched lives.lives and are more understood to be generally cognitively functional. WS people commonly present as extremely social due to the inhibition of social fear and anxiety mechanisms in the brain. Within the
    ...
    by the geneticchromosomal fluke. Additionally,The most relevant complication to the focus of this course occurs in visual processing pathways, specifically in the Dorsal Stream. The dorsal visual stream is associated with
    ...
    of motion and 3D objects sees deficits
    ...
    from perceiving the worldglobal visual stimuli in a neurotypical way.
    Presentation of Social Affinity in WS:

    People that
    ...
    "decision making basbased on affective
    ...
    astronomical level.
    Williams'
    Thus, WS children are more likely to engage socially based on a tendency to imitate and the lack of a tendency to shy away from social interaction. Amygdala activity coming through from the ventral visual stream showed increased activity in WS people when faced with various non-social scenes. However, when presented with threatening faces, amygdala response showed a decrease. Thus, Williams people show high non-social anxiety while experiencing non-social scenes, but are more than fond of anything resembling human interaction.
    Presentation of Musical Affinity in WS:
    Functional Anatomical Review:
    Williams'
    syndrome is
    ...
    optic tract. M-typeInput from the nasal portions of the visual fields of both eyes will remain ipsilateral post-chiasm and input from the temporal portions of the visual field will decussate. This is demonstrated in the following diagram.
    {functional anatomy 2.jpg}
    Visual Input Pathways:
    M-type
    ganglion cells
    ...
    visual field. Continuing
    Continuing
    into the
    ...
    striate cortex.
    A specific case of a WS person investigates the cortical operations of patient KT. KT showed physical deformations from birth but was raised typically in a household with two siblings. Various medical complications arose throughout KT's infancy and he showed the typical lack of social inhibition associated with WS. Motor development showed a slight retard in KT, as walking began after twenty months. Movement was not severely impacted, though some dystonic movement and shape was clear in KT's neck/shoulder regions. MRI displayed a phenomenon consistent with Autism: enlarged lateral ventricles. Additionally, KT's MRI showed agenesis of the Corpus Callosum, though communication between left and right hemispheres was intact.
    Functional anatomical review (including structure(s), location…)
    Input & Output pathways (e.g., neuronal connections)

    {dorsal stream.jpg}

    Presentation of the topic or issue in detail • Summary or concluding paragraph
    GlossaryA specific case of termsa WS person investigates the cortical operations of patient KT. KT showed physical deformations from birth but was raised typically in a household with two siblings. Various medical complications arose throughout KT's infancy and he showed the typical lack of social inhibition associated with WS. Motor development showed a slight retard in KT, as walking began after twenty months. Movement was not severely impacted, though some dystonic movement and posture were clear in KT's neck/shoulder regions. MRI displayed a phenomenon consistent with Autism: enlarged lateral ventricles. Additionally, KT's MRI showed agenesis of the Corpus Callosum, though communication between the left and right hemispheres was intact. KT was put through various motor and visuospatial tests and showed has was shown, trouble arose for the patient when asked to recreate them. KT could identify items but "without canonical views" (Nakamura 1816). In lay terms, KT could identify parts of a whole, but could not cognitively process them together as a whole; the local visual perception was intact, but the global visual perception was impaired. Motion perception and direction perception were left intact, however, as was indicated by normal performance on a task involving the eye-tracking of randomly moving dots on a screen.
    To assess the visuospatial cognitive abilities of the subject, three tests were administered. In the first figure-copying task, KT was asked to recreate a series of geometric shapes comprised of small x's. Though KT was well aware that the 'x' was the building block of the geometric shapes, KT could not actually recreate the global shape. In a second task known as free-drawing, KT was asked to draw objects based on verbal descriptions. For example, KT was directed to draw a flower in a flower pot. Interestingly enough, KT had no problem drawing each item individually, but drew the flower next to the pot. Moreover, the pot was drawn from an inferior point of view; an odd perspective from which to draw such a mundane item. In another verbal drawing task, the subject was asked to draw a house with windows and a door. What resulted was a drawing of a house with windows and a separate illustration of a door below. A third task revealed that KT showed poor performance when asked to copy a drawing of a line through a graph of dots.
    {williams house.jpg}
    Looking further into motion perception (or lack thereof), the test proposed to check the intactness of the magnocellular pathway is "to assess the direction discrimination of coherently moving dots in dynamic random noise" (Nakamura et al. 1813). When asked to indicate the direction of movement of the dots on the screen, KT's performance was within the mean range for children of a comparable age. He performed just as well for various other motion perception tasks. However, the accurate perception of motion was not a fail-safe indication of an intact MT (V5) in the dorsal pathway. Anatomically speaking, the V4 can be a compensatory brain area when V5/MT is non-functional. Thus, it is possible, though unlikely, that plasticity allowed KT's visual cortex to redesign itself as to retain motion perception without a typically functioning MT as MEG imaging returned neurotypical results. This ultimately brings us to the conclusion that some of KT's dorsal stream was left intact, allowing for proper motion detection, while other areas showed deficits resulting in poor spatial analysis of objects. The phrase 'selective dysfunction' is used to describe the lack of congruity in dorsal stream deficits.
    Findings from other studies have proven that WS people, though impaired in their ability to form spatial representations, retain the executive functioning needed for this to occur. These executive processes are individual and separate and can be regarded as such in the visual processing pathways. Because WS people perform poorly in tasks that require visuospatial motor planning (i.e. copying illustrations), the dorsal visual stream deficit theory stands.
    Glossary:
    MT: Also referred to as V5, this landmark in the visual pathway is generally responsible for the processing of local/global movement, speed, and frequency.
    MST: The final stop in visual processing before the parietal cortex gets involved, the MST's ventral and dorsal portions are responsible for perception of movement of objects in the visual field and self-propelled motion, respectively.
    Dorsal Visual Stream: Coming from m-type ganglion cells embedded in the retina, this stream of the visual pathway is responsible for perception of directional movement, spatial awareness, as well as coordination of movement towards objects.
    Retina: The layer of the eye embedded in the sclera upon which light is refracted through the lens. The photoreceptors, bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and ganglion cells found in this area are responsible for light perception and coordinate ESP's, ISP's and ultimately Action Potentials in the ganglion cells which fire through the optic nerve/tract and are ultimately sent to the cortex for processing.
    Simple Cells: Cells with rod-shaped receptive fields found in layer four of the visual cortex upon which many cells with round receptive fields synapse. The perceive various orientations of specifically dedicated areas of the visual field.
    Complex Cells: Cells with rod-shaped receptive cells found in layer four of the visual cortex that perceive a specific orientation at any area within the entire visual field.
    Visual Field: The entire area from which the retina perceives light that is ultimately perceived as sight; everything you see at any given time.
    Corpus Callosum: Region of the brain facilitating communication between left and right hemispheres.
    Questions:
    1. WS syndrome is hypothesized to affect which of the following:
    a. The magnocellular pathway
    b. The parvocellular pathway
    c. The koniocellular pathway
    d. A and C
    e. None of the aboce
    2. The ventral portion of the MST is responsible for perception of self-propelled movement. T or F.
    3. Williams Syndrome commonly causes cognitive deficits strong enough to inhibit one's ability to lead a functional life. T or F.
    4. WS people have an affinity for social interaction due only to their mimicking and imitation tendencies. T or F.
    5. Williams Syndrome delays sensorimotor development, musical development, and development of coordination of movement towards objects. T or F.
    6. The dorsal visual stream is involved in:
    a. localization of visual stimuli
    b. 3D object perception
    c. Spatial and temporal frequency
    d. Coordination of action with objects
    e. All of the Above
    7. If the V5 or MT of the dorsal visual pathway is damaged or inhibited, a patient may still be able to accurately perceive directional movement. T or F.
    8.
    9.
    10.

    Listing of relevant links or suggesting readings (include a brief description of content)
    Quiz questions & answers (5-10 Multiple Choice / T-F & 3-5 Short Answer / Essay)
    References
    https://www.thinglink.com/scene/487669296059645952 (photo)
    https://bioluliaes.wordpress.com/3-eso/3-coordination-function/3-2-sensory-receptors/3-2-1-vision/3-2-1-3-visual-pathways/ (photo)
    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncom.2014.00084/full
    http://www.forgottendiseases.org/assets/WilliamsSyn.html

    (view changes)
    6:41 am

Tuesday, December 12

  1. 10:50 pm
  2. 4:56 pm
  3. page Williams' Syndrome (Kaleb Thomas) edited ... Williams Syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects neurological and physical development. Th…
    ...
    Williams Syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects neurological and physical development. The condition is caused by the deletion of around 21 individual genes along the chromosome 7q11.23. It is characterized primarily by heightened empathy and social skills, hypersensitivity to auditory stimuli, and in some scenarios, intellectual disability. It is suggested that there are approximately 3 times more people with WS than are currently observed or studied in psychological and neurological literature. Typical complications with Williams include congenital heart disease (in 79% of one population), Though those with Williams Syndrome have been historically regarded as mentally handicapped with a retard in learning being an issue, they are commonly able to live functional and enriched lives. Within the brain of a person with WS, the amygdala and linked prefrontal regions are most affected by the genetic fluke. Additionally, the dorsal visual stream associated with the perception of motion sees deficits that inhibit WS people from perceiving the world in a neurotypical way.
    People that present with Williams' Syndrome are most commonly recognized for their abnormally outgoing personalities. Known as having the charisma of a talk-show host, WS people are highly perceptive of nonverbal social cues. As developing children, WS people show neurotypical social navigation through turn-taking and social cueing. In social settings, WS infants and children respond to others with the expected matching or complementary verbal and physical responses. This is contrary to autistic individuals who lack social intuition due to a proposed absence of mirror neurons according to the Ramachandran Mirror Neuron Hypothesis. Populations of WS children have been clinically tested for social tendencies, and the results show more of an inclination to mimicry and imitation in WS people as opposed to neurotypical children. Such sensitivity to the emotions of others plays a key role in the social profile of someone with WS, but their lack of development in other cognitive areas (such as "decision making bas on affective displays" or "perspective taking" [Fidler 12-13]) takes the social keenness to an astronomical level.
    9
    The
    Williams' syndrome is said to cause a disruption of visual processing in the dorsal, or "where" stream, of the visual pathway. The dorsal visual
    ...
    the periphery. On the other hand, the ventral stream of visual processing is responsible for perceiving color, form, boundaries, contours, textures, etc. and flows through layer 4C beta of the striate cortex.
    A specific case of a WS person investigates the cortical operations of patient KT. KT showed physical deformations from birth but was raised typically in a household with two siblings. Various medical complications arose throughout KT's infancy and he showed the typical lack of social inhibition associated with WS. Motor development showed a slight retard in KT, as walking began after twenty months. Movement was not severely impacted, though some dystonic movement and shape was clear in KT's neck/shoulder regions. MRI displayed a phenomenon consistent with Autism: enlarged lateral ventricles. Additionally, KT's MRI showed agenesis of the Corpus Callosum, though communication between left and right hemispheres was intact.

    Functional anatomical review (including structure(s), location…)
    Input & Output pathways (e.g., neuronal connections)
    (view changes)
    8:38 am

Monday, December 11

  1. page Basal Ganglia III edited ... Indirect: Cortex à(E) Striatum à(I) GPe à(I) STN à(E) Output nuclei à(I) Thalamus à(E) Cortex …
    ...
    Indirect: Cortex à(E) Striatum à(I) GPe à(I) STN à(E) Output nuclei à(I) Thalamus à(E) Cortex
    10. Dopamine is excitatory on the direct pathway to facilitate the facilitation, and inhibitory to the indirect pathway to inhibit inhibition (both facilitating movement).

    (view changes)
    12:14 pm

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